Being the United Nations agency for the world of work, the International Labor Organization (ILO) sets the international labor standards, promoting rights at work and also encourages employment opportunities which enhances the social protection and strengthening of dialogue on work-related issues. It has its unique tripartite structure which brings the government together, employers and workers representatives. It develops the mandate of social justice as the basis for peace expressed in terms of ‘Decent Work for All’.
On defining the term, ‘Decent Work’ is something which represents a global goal, promoting the means of striving for economic growth with equity, a logical blend of social and economic goals, contributing to opportunities for all women and men to obtain decent and productive work in the relevance of freedom, equity, security and dignity.
The major organs of the International Labour Organization areas
- International Labour Organization: General Assembly of ILO which meets every year in June.
- Governing Body: It is the Executive Council of the ILO. The period of meeting is three times in a year which is (March, June & November).
- International Labor Office: A Permanent Secretariat.
Here, The working of Conference and the Governing Body is applied by Regional Conferences, Regional Advisory Committees, Industrial and Analogous Committees, Committee of Experts, Panel of Consultants, Special Conference and Meetings etc..,
CONFERENCE AT INTERNATIONAL LABOUR
The International Labor Conference (ILC) has started its first session in the year of 1919 to meet at least once a year. It was assisted by the Governing Body, which adopted a Biennial programme and budget to the International Labor Standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations providing a forum for discussion on social, economic, labour-related issues. India, being a regular and active participant in the conference through its tripartite delegations.
STRUCTURE: The Conference had 4 Indian Presidents, 8 Vice Presidents which comprises 2 from the Government group, 3 from Employers and 3 from the Workers Group. Most Importantly, Indians chaired the committees of the conferences like the Committee of Application of Standards, Selection Committee and Resolutions Committee.
It is known to be the executive wing of the organization, having tripartite features. Since the year of 1922, India has held a non-elective seat on the Governing Body as one among the 10 countries of chief industrial importance. Indian employers and workers representatives have elected the members of the Governing Body from time to time.
Four Indians have been elected as the chairman of the Governing Body. In the beginning, its functions have differed with various Committees. India was a member of all the six committees of the Governing Body. To name
- Programmed, Planning and Administrative.
- Freedom of Association
- Legal Issues and International Labor Standards
- Employment and Social Policy
- Technical Cooperation
- Sectoral Technical Meetings and Related Issues.
The Governing Body of International Labor Organization functions with its various sections and India, taking part in all the proceedings of the Sections during the sessions of the Governing Body.
- Institutional Section (INS)
- Policy Development Section (POL)
- Legal Issues and International Labor Standards Section (LILS)
- The program, financial band Administrative Section (PFA)
- High-Level Section (HL)
- Working Party on the Functioning of the Governing Body and the International Labour Conference (WP/GBC).
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE
The International Labor Office which is situated in Geneva provides the Secretariat for all the conferences and other meetings which are responsible for the day-to-day implementation of decisions are taken by the conference, Governing Body etc…
India has held important positions for the International Labor Office.
CONVENTIONS OF ILO
The main principle of ILO is to set up conventions which means international treaties and instruments that legally bind obligations on the country ratified them and provides nonbinding recommendations. It also sets up guidelines for national policy and actions. India has always shown a positive approach concerning ILO. The ILO guidelines and their useful frameworks are to protect the interest of labor. India has been ratifying the conventions which completely satisfy our system of law. India has ratified 41 conventions of ILO but at a later stage, because of a few special reasons, India may not be in a position to ratify a convention. India has generally voted for convention withholding its position as far as ratification is concerned.
RATIFICATION BY INDIA
There are around 47 International Labor Organization Conventions and 1 Protocol ratified by India. Out of 47 Conventions and 1 Protocol ratified by India,
39 are in force, 5 Conventions and 0 Protocol has been denounced, 4 Instruments abrogated.
It was later denounced as the Convention requires internal furnishing of statistics concerning unemployment every three months which is not subjected to practice.
Initially, The minimum age requirement was 16 and later raised to 18 years during 1989. The convention was denounced as a result of the ratification of Convention No 89. Few lists which were not prescribed are the following branches of social security, maternity benefit, the invalidity of benefit and survivors benefit. Therefore, India has developed the mandate of social justice as the basis for peace expressed in terms of ‘Decent Work for All’.